Measuring Language Complexity

Wiki, and TheLiterature? (and all manner of casual programming conversation) is chock full of claims like "Language X is simpler (more complex) than language Y, because..." Many such claims are based on rather trivial metrics, like number of keywords, etc.

What is a meaningful definition of simplicity/complexity?

And various metrics which get bandied about

There isn't (despite what some will tell you) a clear cut answer to the above; and many of the above factors are opposing. (I.e is it better to have a "simple" language like AlgolSixty, SchemeLanguage, or PascalLanguage with a minimalistic library; or something like JavaLanguage or DotNet with libraries for everything under the sun? When measuring complexity, should libraries be considered separate from the language or extensions of the language (such that you measure core language + libraries)?)

CategoryProgrammingLanguage CategoryComparisons CategoryComplexity

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