Cardelli Type Terminology

LucaCardelli's influential 1997 paper "Type Systems" ( gives definitions for a number of terms related to types, excerpted here. See also TypesOfTyping.

His approach and definitions are very reasonable for some purposes, but incomplete for others. Notably, he considers only typed variables, not typed cells, and hence calls LispLanguage an "untyped" language. This is not so much wrong, as it is unhelpful, for the Lisp side of the world; there are other approaches that are more helpful there.

Cardelli's approach on the other hand is very handy for discussing things like HaskellLanguage.

See also ContraVsCoVariance, et al.
CategoryTypeTheory or CategoryLanguageTyping?

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